Nurse Manager Support; What is it? Structures and Practices that Promote it

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Professional nursing organizations and executive-level nurses have identified microsystems,1 forces,2 hallmarks,3 principles and elements,4 characteristics,5 indicators,6 essentials,7 work-enabling factors,8 standards,9 principles,10 and components11 associated with productive, healthy, excellent, satisfying nurse work environments. Analyses of these attributes indicate one characteristic common to all: quality management and leadership. Executive-level nurses describe this leadership as visionary, enthusiastic, competent, visible, credible, and authentic; nurse managers (NM) describe it as supportive. Empirical studies have generated extensive lists of desirable leadership traits, attributes, and role functions as well as the organizational supports and educational programs that promote their development.4,5,8,11–13 The informants in these studies have been nurse executives and managers.